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 Courtyard house has become the representative typology in Beijing since 600 years ago.  Based on the consideration of local solar exposure, wind direction, spaces are distributed by different scales of courtyards, making people feel warm in the Winter and cool in the Summer, which is the main factor of Beijing courtyard house.  To some extent, Beijing courtyard house, reflects traditional Chinese philosophy towards human and nature. Typically it can be difined as two parts, front couryard and back courtyard. The back courtyard mainly serves as daily living function, distributed on two sides of North to South axis, facing one rectangular couryard, symbolized as “Round sky and square earth”. People can feel the repeating change of day and night, seasons and years from this inner-faced “window”, the courtyrad.   The organization of courtyards in the house is clear that  every one is strictly separated from each other, forming hierarchy and order of master and servant, male and female, elder and young.
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